Key Findings

Key Findings

Is homosexuality biologically determined?

  • Twin studies, which give us the best indicator of whether homosexuality is genetically determined or not, show that if your identical twin is homosexual, you have an 80% likelihood of being heterosexual. This demonstrates that homosexuality is not genetically determined.
  • Rates of homosexuality between identical and non-identical twins show a little difference (5-7%), which is in keeping with other biological traits that have little to no genetic component, such as Parkinson’s Disease.
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Don’t homosexual individuals have different brains to heterosexual individuals? 

  • Attempts to demonstrate that homosexual men and women have more “feminine” and “masculine” brains, respectively, as a result of hormonal differences in-utero, have failed, in a mess of contradictory results. This was due to the fact that the method used was confounded by ethnicity of participants.
  • All attempts to demonstrate a neurological correlate of homosexuality have similarly failed, with significant differences in small sample sizes, evaporating when larger sample sizes are utilised.
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Isn’t there a gay-gene?

  • Regions of DNA, such as Hamer’s Xq28 region, which seem to be more prevalent among homosexual individuals have been shown to be artefacts as a result of small sample sizes. The methods utilised for seeking a “gay gene” have been flawed insofar as the method used – genome wide association – is unsuited to the study of homosexuality.
  • Epigenetic differences cannot play any significant role in determining homosexuality, as identical twins, who show large differences in rates of homosexuality, are born with indistinguishable epigenomes.
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Is it true that having older brothers make a male more likely to be gay?

  • Having more older brothers does put a male individual at a very slightly increased risk of homosexuality. This effect is thought to contribute to around 1 in 7 homosexual men. This does not apply to homosexual women.There is no evidence this is as a result of any biological cause. The “maternal immune” theory, which states that the mother produces antibodies against male-specific targets with subsequent pregnancies, cannot be correct as we would expect to see gonadal and testicular disorders in homosexual men, as well as a higher incident of learning difficulties, neither of which we see.
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Why is having more older brothers make a male more likely to be gay?

  • We should note that having a greater number of older brothers is also associated with the development of homosexual paedophilia and also male-female homosexual transsexuals. Therefore any explanation for why homosexual men are more likely to have older brothers must similarly explain this association for these other two groups also.
  • The New Zealand Mental Health Survey demonstrated that homosexual individuals are at a much higher risk of “adverse events” in childhood such as witnessing or experiencing domestic violence, rape, sexual assault, death of a loved one, etc. Rape and sexual assault in particular are strongly associated with homosexual development. This effect shows a dose-effect relationship too; the more abuse, the greater the likelihood of non-heterosexuality.
  • That homosexual men (as well as homosexual paedophiles and male-female homosexual transsexuals) are more likely to have older brothers is, therefore, easily explained by the fact that with a greater number of older brothers, an individual would be at greater risk of exposure to predatory males seeking to sexually abuse a child, whether from within or outside the family.
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What is the relationship between suffering sexual abuse and developing homosexual tendencies?

  • The New Zealand Mental Health Survey demonstrated that homosexual individuals are at a much higher risk of “adverse events” in childhood such as witnessing or experiencing domestic violence, rape, sexual assault, death of a loved one, etc. Suffering rape and sexual assault in particular are strongly associated with later homosexual development. This effect shows a dose-effect relationship too; the more abuse, the greater the likelihood of non-heterosexuality.
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How many people are homosexual in the UK?

  • Homosexual individuals make up 1% of the UK population and have done consistently since 2010. The idea that the proportion of homosexual individuals in the UK is 10%, is a myth.
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How do we develop a sexual orientation?

  • Sexual orientation is born out of a gender-identity which itself is built upon one’s relationship with one’s parents, and then with one’s peers of the same gender. Having relationships with parents and peers that are supportive, intimate and safe, enable the development of a stable gender identity. With adolescence, this gender identity becomes sexualised, with the individual developing the sexual orientation typical for their gender group, i.e.: heterosexuality.
  • Intersex individuals (i.e.: individuals with no clear classification of male/female) usually follow in the sexual orientation consistent with their gender identity, which itself is usually based on their closest biological sex. 
  • The effect of homosexual parents can be seen by the fact that children raised in households by homosexual couples model their gender-identity on their parents, and so have between 1.4-12 times higher rates of homosexuality, depending on the combination of the child’s gender and the gender of the parents.
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What causes homosexuality?

  • Homosexuality arises through a number of paths. The two commonest are found below: gender-conforming and gender non-conforming. In reality, the two often co-exist in a gay individual.
  • Gender non-conforming: Homosexuality developing from heterosexual parents is associated strongly with suffering of parental divorce, adoption, sexual assault, incest, rape, and a breakdown in relationships with both parents and peers. This demonstrates that just as heterosexuality develops from a healthy and stable relationship with parents and peers, homosexuality develops from disordered, unstable and damaging relationships with parents and peers. The failure to develop a gender identity in keeping with one’s biological sex as a result of such disordered relationships with gender role models in childhood, results in the development of a gender identity of the opposite gender. This is characterised by behaviour and mannerisms in the pre-pubertal and pubertal phase of “butchness” in girls and “effeminacy” in boys. The development of gender non-conforming traits result in further rejection by peers of the same age, and psychological identification with the opposite gender. This psychological gender of the opposite sex becomes sexualised with adolescence, resulting in early homosexual experiences.
  • Gender conforming: Sexual assault of pre-pubertal girls by males results in their turning away from male affection and causes them to be drawn to seeking solace and affection from other females. Pre-pubertal boys who experience sexual contact with older males however, go on to crave further male sexual contact, and turn away from female contact. Such instances of sexual abuse do not always result in the development of gender non-conforming behaviour.
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Can sexual orientation change?

  • If homosexuality develops as a result of a gender-identity disorder in childhood stemming from rejection from one’s gender group, resulting in a desire for affection that becomes sexualised at puberty, we should see homosexual individuals re-orientating as heterosexuals, if they experience acceptance by their biological gender-group. This is precisely what we see.
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Where’s the evidence that sexual orientation changes?

  • Only 10% of adolescents who experienced homosexual attraction at 16 years of age, still experience it at 17 years of age, as compared to 78% of heterosexually attracted boys. This demonstrates that homosexual attraction in adolescence in significantly more unstable than heterosexual attraction. It also demonstrates that supporting “gay teenagers” in their orientation is irresponsible as the vast majority will identify as heterosexual a year later.
  • This trend is maintained when we look at how sexual orientation changes between 17 and 21 years of age, with the overwhelming majority of boys of every sexual orientation at age 17 turning towards a heterosexual orientation by age 21. Heterosexually oriented individuals at age 17 maintain their sexuality to an overwhelmingly greater degree than any other sexual orientation.
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Do adults change their sexual orientation? If so, why?

  • These trends are maintained in adulthood: more people shift to a heterosexual orientation than turn towards a non-heterosexual orientation. Heterosexual individuals maintain their orientation to a much greater degree than non-heterosexual orientations, again indicating that heterosexuality is an inherently more stable sexual orientation.
  • Part of the reason for changes in sexual orientation in adulthood is due to sexual and domestic violence. This “pushes” people out of their sexual orientation, towards the opposite gender. This however, is a much weaker motivator of sexual orientation determination than the gender-identity disorder identified in “What Causes Homosexuality?”. This is another mechanism of “gender conforming” homosexuality, and may exist on a spectrum with bisexuality, which also has strong ties to post-pubertal intimate partner violence.
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What is Transgenderism?

  • Transgenderism is medically known as gender dysphoria. This describes a state of suffering psychological distress on account of one’s biological sex.
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What Causes Transgenderism?

  • Transgender individuals are many times more likely than cisgendered individuals of having suffered sexual assault at all ages of their youth, from childhood to teenage years and on to early adulthood. Such assault ranges from unwanted sexual touching to rape. Such negative experiences have a proven causal association with gender dysphoria (as detailed in the article “What Causes Homosexuality?”).
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Does Transgenderism Start in Childhood?

  • Children with gender-dysphoria from the ages of 5-12 are likely to be cis-gendered 10 years later, if left alone.
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Do Transgender People have Higher Suicide rates?

  • Individuals with gender-dysphoria suffer much higher rates of both attempted and successful suicide.
  • Suicidality in transgender individuals is poorly explained by social stigma or transphobia. This includes offensive behaviour or physical violence.
  • Suicidality in transgender individuals remains high (19 times higher) after gender reassignment surgery. It is difficult to claim gender-reassignment surgery as a success for transgender individuals, when such high levels of attempted and successful suicide continue even afterwards.
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Is Gender Reassignment Surgery Necessary?

  • Gender reassignment surgery shows improved trends in quality of life (QoL) 1 year after surgery, which are reversed to pre-surgical levels after 3 years. By 5 years post surgery, the QoL of transexuals is worse than it was before surgery.
  • Anecdotal evidence highlights a significant proportion of individuals who wish to de-transition after going through gender re-assignment surgery. The exact proportions of such individuals require further study, but may, if significant enough, further undermine the mantra that gender-reassignment surgery is the only treatment for gender dysphoria.
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